NLP vs. NLU vs. NLG (Article Review)

NLP vs. NLU vs. NLG: the differences between three natural language processing concepts. Eda Kavlakoglu (IBM Watson Blog, 2020).


  • Natural Langauge Processing (NLP) takes unstructured data and converts it into structued data that machines can use to complete tasks for humans.
  • Natural Languaage Understanding (NLU) uses syntactic (how words are arranged to create well-formed sentences) and semantic (the meaning conveyed) analysis of text and speech to determine the meaning of sentences.
  • Natural langauge generation (NLG) is the production of a human text or speech response base on human input. You say something and the machine says something back to you. NLG apps engage in text planning (content is generated and organized coherently), sentence planning (text flow and punctuation), and realization (checks for grammatical accuracy).